In addition to extreme weather events, an estimated 80 percent of Mozambique’s population relies on traditional biomass, such as firewood and charcoal, as their primary energy source – with the demand for conventional biomass only increasing due to population growth and rising poverty.
In recent years, the government has shown increased focus on climate resilience and action through the development of policy initiatives such as their National Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy (2013-2025) as well as their National Determined Contribution (NDC) in line with their commitment to the Paris Agreement.
In order to meet these commitments and implement their plans, however, Mozambique needed a stronger monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) system.
The Initiative for Climate Action Transparency (ICAT) was eager to partner with the government of Mozambique to do just that.
Over the course of two years, ICAT worked with the government to identify the barriers and limitations of the current national MRV system. A concerted participatory approach, including regular workshops and consultations, helped to engage a variety of stakeholders and ensured all had a seat at the table. Together, a road map was developed to overcome barriers and to help establish an improved MRV system that can meet the requirements of the Paris Agreement’s Enhanced Transparency Framework – and help the government to reach its long-term national development goals.
The ICAT project was able to create greater awareness of the need for a strong MRV system, leading to acknowledgement among a wide variety of stakeholders of the importance and value of having such a system in place. The involvement of senior representatives such as the National Director of Environment and the Permanent Secretary, helped create the political momentum needed to advance this kind of work in the country.
With rising CO2 emissions and a growing need for energy access, a deeper understanding of Mozambique’s current climate policies and actions was needed to help develop robust mitigation measures and increase sustainable development impacts.
The government therefore applied in combination ICAT’s Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development Assessment Guides to assess the impact of selected national policies and actions. An in-depth analysis of the country’s Renewable Energy Feed-in-Tariff policy and nationally appropriate mitigation action (NAMA) on promoting a sustainable charcoal value chain in Mozambique – both a first of its kind for ICAT – revealed to the government the beneficial impacts of implementing the policies. For example, the expected impacts showed that actions tied to NAMA – including introducing improved kilns, sustainable forest management, briquetting of charcoal waste and torrefaction – could lead to 119 percent emission reductions by 2025, and 113 percent reduction by 2030 when compared to a business-as-usual scenario.